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日本LD学会第28回大会(2日目)

2日目の本日の見所は

発達障害児者のためのVRを活用したSST の開発とその効果
〇石下 修平1、〇石下 修平1、〇青木 雄志2、〇三森 睦子3、〇鈴木 慶太1
1.株式会社Kaien
2.株式会社ジョリーグッド
3.NPO星槎教育研究所

VRでの療育の時代がついにやってきました!!

今後のワークショップや講演会等でネタを絡めていきます!

今月は講演会や研修会がたくさんありますので
是非上村ライブを聴きに来て下さいね☆

来年(第29回)はグランキューブ大阪開催されます

| 学会 | 17:34 | comments(-) | trackbacks(-) | TOP↑

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日本LD学会第28回大会

日本LD学会第28回大会が11/9-10の2日間
パシフィコ横浜で開催されます。

今回のテーマは
『LDの「定義」を再考する 〜教育定義の誕生から<20年>の今こそ〜』

https://confit.atlas.jp/guide/event/jald28th/top


本日参加した中で面白かったのは
自閉症スペクトラムの人の余暇・自由時間の支援(3)
〇宮野 雄太1、〇縄岡 好晴2、〇宮野 雄太1、〇米澤 巧美3、〇高木 一江4
1.横浜国立大学教育学部附属特別支援学校
2.大妻女子大学共生社会文化研究所
3.横浜市発達障害者支 援センター
4.横浜市中部地域療育センター


今後のワークショップや講演会等でネタを絡めていきます!

今月は講演会や研修会がたくさんありますので
是非上村ライブを聴きに来て下さいね☆

| 学会 | 20:24 | comments(-) | trackbacks(-) | TOP↑

≫ EDIT

10th ABAI International Conference@Stockholm (DAY2)

第10回国際行動分析学会国際大会
@スウェーデンのストックホルム

2日目にして最終日の今日は
以下のプログラムを聴講しました。

Measuring the Effects of Psychotropic Medication on Behavioral Outcomes
Chair: Jennifer R. Zarcone (The May Institute)
Abstract:
This symposium will cover several aspects of measuring behavioral outcomes when individuals have been prescribed psychotropic medication. While the focus is on individuals with developmental disabilities, this information could be used with a wide range of individuals with a variety of diagnoses. The presentations will focus on methods for collecting data via several different analog (e.g., functional analysis) and assessment procedures that can inform decision making about whether the psychotropic medication is having the intended effect. The goal is to provide practitioners with assessments that they are able to implement in a variety of settings.

The Impact of Medication Changes on Functional Analysis Outcomes
(Applied Research)
LYNN G. BOWMAN (Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)
Abstract: Numerous studies have demonstrated drug specific effects on functional analysis (FA) outcomes (i.e., Crosland et al 2003; Zarcone et al 2004); however, few descriptive studies have examined how medication changes impact the clarity (i.e., differentiation) or results (i.e., masked functions) of subsequent FAs conducted with the same participant. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which psychotropic medication changes altered FA outcomes on an inpatient unit. A review of electronic medical charts was conducted between the years 1995-2014. Twelve cases had sufficient evidence (i.e., multiple FAs, detailed medication changes) for further review. Participants were aged 7 to 21 years and were diagnosed with IDD. Attending psychiatrists directed medication changes with the guidance of the senior behavior analyst, and therapists who collected data during the FAs remained blind to medication changes. To determine differentiation, criteria were established similar to Hagopian et al. (1997), and a quotient score was generated. In half of the cases, alterations to medication (dosage and/or type) led to different conclusions, while the other half did not. In 10 of the 12 cases quotient scores were improved following medication changes. Implications for practicing clinicians will be offered.

Polypharmacy and Problem Behavior: An Evaluation of Behavior When Medication Regimens are Altered
(Applied Research)
MARIA G. VALDOVINOS (Drake University)
Abstract:
Psychotropic medications are commonly prescribed in a polypharmacy fashion to adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities who engage in problem behavior to treat and reduce behavior; however, the impact these medications (and subsequent changes in medication) have on the behavior they are intended to treat are not well understood. A study was conducted to evaluate the extent to which changes in psychotropic medication regimens altered functional relations between problem behavior and the environment for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. This presentation will provide data for two of the participants whose behaviors (i.e., aggression, self-injurious behavior, stereotypy, and presence of adverse side effects) were monitored over several months (7 and 23 month) via direct observation and functional analyses. The results of this study revealed that changes in medication were associated with changes in assessment results. These findings suggest continued surveillance of behavior function when using psychotropic medication to address problem behavior (Funding: NICHD grant #: 1R15HD072497-01).

Behavioral Indicators to Measure the Impact of Psychotropic Medication
(Applied Research)
JENNIFER R. ZARCONE (The May Institute), Cara L. Phillips (The May Institute)
Abstract: This presentation will focus on two innovative analog assessments that we developed to evaluate the behavioral effects of medication for individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities. These analogs were developed to measure specific behavioral effects that go beyond measures of frequency of problem behavior. In the first case, we will describe a behavioral analog that we developed to measure the impact of two attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications on out of seat and problem behavior. The trial showed that the initial medication (atomoxetine) was more effective than methylphenidate on out of seat behavior but had no significant impact on problem behavior. In the second case, we measured the effects of two antipsychotic medications on reinforcement choice in a self-control analog. Results showed that neither medication affected the individual’s choice or ability to engage in self-control. These data indicate that we may be able to use analog conditions to determine how medications are affecting problem behavior and other related behavior within relevant contexts. These analogs assessments can be useful in clinical and educational settings.

Promoting Early Social Skills in Infants and Children At-Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome
Chair: Jacqueline Carrow (Caldwell University)
Discussant: Jacqueline Carrow (Caldwell University)
Abstract:
We have initiated, replicated, and extended a programmatic line of behavior-analytic research to facilitate and establish early social skills in infants at-risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Infant social engagement responses including vocalizations, echoics, joint attention, and social referencing are considered critical developmental milestones that serve as fundamental prerequisites for early communication and social skills (Pelaez, 2009). Treatment based on the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has been consistently regarded as the most efficacious treatment for symptoms of ASD, and as such, has been similarly shown to be effective in teaching emerging social skills to infants at risk of ASD. Specifically, the first presenter will briefly identify the early behavioral indicators of at-risk infants, and overview the application of a brief ABA-based parent treatment model for promoting early infant vocalizations and emerging echoic response. The second presenter will examine the acquisition of joint attention and social referencing repertoires via an operant-learning paradigm arrangement among infants at-risk of ASD and Fragile X syndrome. The discussant will comment on these ongoing programs of research on early social skills in at-risk infant populations using ABA, and explore future directions and implications of this research.

Social Reinforcement Procedures to Establish Vocalizations and Echoics in Infants At-Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder
(Applied Research)
HAYLEY NEIMY (Shabani Institute & Endicott College), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California), Mary Jane Weiss (Endicott College)
Abstract:
Infants who have not yet received any diagnoses often display markers, deficits, and behavioral indicators, that make them “at-risk” of a later ASD diagnosis. Among the hallmark diagnostic criteria of ASD are limitations and impairments in language and communication. Interventions to promote and encourage vocalizations in infants at risk of ASD as early as possible are of utmost priority. The present investigation compares the use of three different operant reinforcers to promote vocalizations, echoic approximations, and echoics with topographical correspondence in three infants at-risk of ASD. The results reliably confirmed findings from similar research (Bendixen & Pelaez, 2010; Pelaez, Virues, & Gewirtz, 2011a and 2011b) that contingent reinforcement procedures are more effective than non-contingent reinforcement procedures. Specifically, the vocal imitation condition reliably produced higher rates and accuracy of all three targeted responses: a) vocalizations, b) echoic approximations, and c) echoics with one-to-one correspondence. Implications of the present study highlight the important role of systematically and contingently arranging the social consequences delivered by the caregiver to promote the vocal behavior of an infant at-risk. Future research and application are discussed in the context of ASD prevention, optimal infant-caregiver environmental arrangements, misplaced contingencies, and the establishment of caregivers as social reinforcers.

Establishing Joint Attention Skills to Facilitate Social Referencing Repertoires in Toddlers via Operant Learning Procedures
(Applied Research)
KATERINA MONLUX (Stanford University; Oslo Metropolitan University ), Martha Pelaez (Florida International University), Jonathan J. Tarbox (University of Southern California)
Abstract: Deficits in social engagement are among the main developmental problems observed among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular, joint attention and social referencing skills are critical for the development of more complex social interactions. The use of behavioral techniques and brief parent-infant engagement training has shown to be successful in promoting these social skills. We explore the hypothesis that by targeting joint attention and social referencing skills in the natural environment and by using caregivers as therapists we can potentially mitigate and prevent the development of later onset behavior language problems commonly associated with ASD. The current presentation reviews and extends previously published procedures for the training of joint attention and social referencing modeled after Pelaez and colleagues’ (2012) operant learning paradigm. Further, a model for expanding previous findings to the natural environment with a population at-risk of developing ASD and Fragile X syndrome is proposed where joint attending skills can be taught first to aid in the acquisition of social referencing. While very similar social behavior chains, joint attention and social referencing have functional differences, which will be explained.

Supporting Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Successful Transitions to Adulthood: Pathways, Pitfalls, and Progress
Chair: Eileen Hopkins (Eden II Programs)
JOANNE GERENSER (Eden II Programs)
PAIGE RAETZ (Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center)←大学院時代の同級生☆
RANDY I. HOROWITZ (Nassau Suffolk Services for Autism)
Abstract:
Despite the ongoing advances in effective intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder, outcomes in adulthood remain highly variable. This panel will discuss the literature on adult outcomes and the factors that appear to play a role. Presenters will share perspectives and experiences on how families, supporting organizations, and individuals with autism spectrum disorder can work together to plan early and effectively for the transition to adulthood. Gaps encountered in ABA-based educational settings with regard to planning and programming for adulthood will be shared, along with successful strategies to ensure essential skills are identified and developed. The panel will integrate information from available research on adult outcomes, and direct experience as service providers in areas including: identifying appropriate curricular targets, consideration of different approaches to build essential skills, assessment, progress monitoring, risk analysis, individual choice making, and approaches to service delivery fidelity and accountability. Panel presenters will share experiences and insights from three different service organizations across the United States of America, each of which utilizes different approaches, models, and funding sources, while maintaining a strong commitment to effective services grounded in applied behavior analysis.

Topics in Verbal Behavior
Chair: Rodrigo Dal Ben (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)

Looking Out the Window and Back Inside: A Behavioral Explanation of Early Speech Perception
Domain: Theory
RODRIGO DAL BEN (Universidade Federal de São Carlos), Débora Souza (Universidade Federal de São Carlos)
Abstract: Cognitive researchers have studied early speech perception extensively. Although their data reveal several contingencies involved in early verbal development, the theoretical explanations provided usually contain non-falsifiable constructs, such as cognitive agents. Falsifiable behavioral explanations, based on reflex and operant principles, may offer a more parsimonious alternative. However, explicit consequences for speech perception are usually absent in experimental designs employed by cognitivists and those conducted in natural environments. Automatic reinforcement/consequences are commonly invoked to fill this important gap. Although it may be a more parsimonious heuristic, the falsifiable line that distinguishes its use as a hypothetical construct from an oxymoron can be blurred. Here we analyze previous studies to show that conceptual and practical criteria should be followed for a proper use of automatic consequences as part of a behavioral explanation of verbal development. Conceptually, explicit descriptions of antecedents and of potentially testable relations between responses and assumed consequences should be provided. Practically, its use should promote empirical research on contingencies that establishes explicit consequences as automatic ones, which may require innovative research designs to put the behavior under the microscope. Adhering to these criteria may provide a more complete understanding of speech perception and verbal development.

Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Intraverbal Responses About the Past
Domain: Applied Research
JEANNE STEPHANIE GONZALEZ (Johanna McDonald, LLC), Sarah Slocum (Marcus Autism Center and Emory School of Medicine)
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that responding to questions regarding past events is a developmental milestone typically reached by age three or four. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) might struggle with this skill in comparison to their neurotypical peers. This study describes a methodology for teaching subjects with ASD intraverbal responses about past events by systematically increasing delays between the presentation of target stimuli and the delivery of a question about the target stimuli. Probes of the terminal delay were conducted after each successive increase in delay. Results showed both subjects successfully responded to questions after a 30-min delay following some level of treatment. This study demonstrated an effective method for teaching intraverbal responses describing past events. More research is needed to replicate these results, study different methods for teaching this skill, and test theoretical mechanisms for remembering.

New Approaches to Communication and Social Speech for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Chair: Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Discussant: Ruth M. DeBar (Caldwell University)
Abstract:
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display characteristic communication deficits that interfere not only with verbal behavior but with social interactions as well. Researchers continue with their endeavors to find creative solutions and novel approaches. The present symposium includes four studies in which innovative interventions have been designed to help children on the spectrum advance in their social communication. In the first presentation, a new form of script prompting, a picture-script intervention, was created to teach minimal verbalizers to speak in full sentences. In the second presentation, children with limited verbal skills were taught to approach and initiate a verbal request for play to a peer using the Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS) procedure. Presentation 3 discusses the use of heritage language for bilingual children with ASD during parent presented Natural Language Paradigm (NLP) sessions. Finally, the last study presents results from an assessment of social language during indoor versus outdoor social skills groups. Taken together, this symposium provides new interventions and adaptions to facilitate the children’s social communication. Exciting prospects can be drawn as we look forward to continued success in teaching communication to children with autism spectrum disorder.

Increasing Speech via Picture Script With Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Caitlyn Gumaer (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College), Jenna Gilder (Claremont Graduate University), ALANNA DANTONA (Claremont Graduate University ), Benjamin R. Thomas (Claremont Graduate University), Brittany Nichole Bell (Claremont Graduate University)
Abstract:
Typically, communication interventions target nonverbal children and highly verbal children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but fewer focus on those in the middle who are considered “phrase speakers.” It may be possible to adjust the highly successful script programs that have been designed for verbal children for these phrase speakers (Charlop-Christy & Kelso, 2003). The present study used a multiple baseline design across participants to examine the effects of a picture-based script program with four school-aged, phrase speakers with ASD. Picture cards, similar to those used in PECS, were set up on a sentence strip, for the children to say. Each sentence contained verb pictures (to eat, to play), quantity pictures (numbers), size pictures (big, little), colors (red, orange, green), and nouns (candy, cars). Essentially, the child learned to say, “I want to play big blue cars” as opposed to “I want car.” The pictures were faded out until the child used only speech. Initial results indicate significant increases in mean length of utterances across all four participants. Results also indicate generalization to unfamiliar therapists in unfamiliar settings across three of the four participants. Findings from the current study may yield implications for communication interventions for phrase speakers with ASD.

Using Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions to Increase Play Initiations for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
JENNA GILDER (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract:
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may experience severe speech delays and language deficits (Schreibman, 1988) that as a result can restrict their already limited social skills (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition). To address these concerns, the present study examined the use of Multiple Incidental Teaching Sessions (MITS) paired with an incremental time delay to teach appropriate verbal initiations for play to children with ASD. This study used a multiple baseline design across six participants with ASD. Each child was taught to ask their peer to play with them via MITS. In baseline, all six children did not consistently ask their peer to play. During intervention, all of the children learned quickly to independently ask their peers to play. Five of the six children generalized the skill to a new setting and to their sibling. Maintenance was also seen at 6-months. These finding provide support for the use of MITS in teaching social verbal initiations to children with ASD.

Assessing Bilingual Language Acquisition in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Natural Language Paradigm
CAITLYN GUMAER (Claremont Graduate University), Nataly Lim (University of Texas at Austin), Alanna Dantona (Claremont Graduate University), Marjorie H. Charlop (Claremont McKenna College)
Abstract:
Little research has been done with bilingual children in their heritage language with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as practitioners and parents fear that exposing a child with ASD to more than one language will cause further delays in language development and other core deficit areas (Kremer-Sadlik, 2005). Yet recent research has found that exposure to and the use of heritage languages can be advantageous (Lim & Charlop, 2018). However, research has yet to explore how exposure to both one’s heritage language and English can impact a child with ASD’s language abilities and verbal behavior. The present study used a multiple baseline design across four parent-child dyads to assess bilingual language acquisition using the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP; Laski, Charlop & Schreibman, 1987; Spector & Charlop, 2018). Following free-play baseline sessions, four mothers were taught to implement NLP in both their heritage language (i.e., Spanish, Korean) and English. To control for treatment effects, NLP was counter-balanced across the four parent-child dyads. Upon the implementation of NLP, regardless of language condition, each child’s appropriate verbalizations increased during NLP treatment sessions and in free-play probe sessions. Findings from the current study may yield implications for language interventions for bilingual children with ASD.

Treating Sleep Problems in Children With Autism: Complexity, Outcomes, and Collateral Effects

Chair: Laurie McLay (University of Canterbury)
Discussant: Stephanie Gerow (Baylor University)
Abstract:
Sleep problems are ubiquitous among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Without effective treatment these sleep problems are unlikely to resolve, resulting in adverse secondary effects on the daytime functioning and wellbeing of people with ASD and their families. Sleep problems in children with ASD are underpinned by a combination of biopsychosocial factors and treatments include both pharmacological and behavioral approaches. However, to date we know little about how parental attributions about sleep problems and child and family complexity variables affect treatment selection, perceptions of efficacy, and outcome. This symposium contains a series of data-based presentations evaluating these important issues, including: (a) the efficacy of individualized, assessment-informed behavioral interventions for sleep problems in children with ASD, (b) child and family complexity variables and their impact on treatment outcomes, (c) parental attributions about sleep problems in their child with ASD, and (d) the collateral child and family benefits of effective sleep treatment.

Assessment and Treatment of Sleep Problems in Young Children: Behavioral Intervention With and Without Pharmacological Intervention
SANDY JIN (California State University, Northridge), Frank Gutierres (California State University, Northridge), Sevan Ourfalian (California State University, Northridge)
Abstract:
Sleep problems are prevalent and persistent in young children, especially children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These problems negatively impact the health and development of young children and are often challenging to address for caregivers and clinicians. Pharmacological interventions, such as melatonin, are commonly recommended for pediatric sleep problems despite limited research on their efficacy and social acceptability. Function-based behavioral interventions show merit as a promising alternative but has yet to draw to focus of mainstream treatment providers. This present study evaluated the efficacy of personalized and assessment-based behavioral intervention on the sleep problems of children diagnosed with ASD. Nighttime infrared video and sleep diary were used to measure sleep interfering behaviors, sleep onset delay, night and early waking, the total amount of sleep, as well as other relevant variables in the participating children. Parents and caregivers were encouraged to assist with treatment development during the assessment process and served as interventionists at home following behavioral skills training. A multiple-baseline-across-subjects designed was used to evaluate the treatments. Parents also provided feedback on the acceptability of each treatment and on their satisfaction with the outcomes.

The Collateral Benefits of Treating Sleep Problems in Children With Autism
LAURIE MCLAY (University of Canterbury), Karyn G. France (University of Canterbury), Neville Morris Blampied (University of Canterbury), Jemma Vivian (University of Canterbury)
Abstract:
Sufficient quality of sleep is essential to an individual’s health, wellbeing, and development. Sleep problems affect a large number of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and are likely to persist if not effectively treated resulting in profound negative effects on the daytime functioning and well-being of children with ASD and their families. Behaviourally-based treatments, including extinction, adaptations to the sleep-wake schedule, reinforcement, and modifications to sleep hygiene practices have strong empirical support. Increasingly, these interventions are individualized based on the outcomes of Functional Behavioural Assessment (FBA). The present study evaluated the collateral effects of resolving sleep problems on children’s daytime behaviour and ASD symptomatology, and parental mental health, sleep, and relationship quality. Data is presented for 40 participants with ASD between 2-18 years of age who received a FBA-based, parent-implemented intervention. The Child Behavior Checklist, Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-3, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and Relationship Quality Index were administered during baseline and short-term follow-up to assess the collateral benefit of any improvement in sleep. Preliminary data indicates significant improvement in all measures of collateral behaviour change and well-being. This data and the implications thereof will be discussed.

Sleep Problems in Children and Adolescents With Autism: Type, Impact, Parental Attributions and Help-Seeking Behavior
AMARIE CARNETT (University of Texas at San Antonio), Laurie McLay (University of Canterbury), Sarah Grace Hansen (Georgia State University), Karyn France (University of Canterbury), Neville Morris Blampied (University of Canterbury)
Abstract:
Sleep problems of varying types and topographies are commonly reported among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Without effective treatment, sleep problems in children with ASD are likely to persist and can result in adverse long-term effects. Although the literature indicates higher rates of sleep problems in individuals with ASD, compared to typically developing children, little is known about the interaction between parental attributions about their child’s sleep problem and treatment selection; how parental beliefs align with research evidence; and the interaction between sleep problem type and child and family impacts. The purpose of this study was to examine the types of sleep problems reported by parents of children with ASD; parental attributions about the locus, stability and controllability of sleep problems; and the secondary impact of sleep problems on children and families. Data from 221 respondents collected via an online survey will be presented. Overall findings and implications will be discussed.

Case Complexity, Family Engagement, and Sleep Outcomes in Families Presenting for Behavioral Treatment of Sleep Problems in Their Child With Autism
Karyn France (University of Canterbury), LAURIE MCLAY (University of Canterbury), Neville Morris Blampied (University of Canterbury), Yvonne Chow (University of Canterbury), Philip Ng (University of Canterbury)
Abstract:
Case complexity in families of children with sleep problems and autism may be expected to present barriers to the effectiveness of treatment based on Functional Behaviour Assessment (FBA). This study investigated the extent to which this was the case in up to 40 families who completed, and 15 who did not complete, an intervention for their sleep problems. Families were rated on complexity using a scale developed from that presented by Kazdin (2006). The scale rated child comorbidity, parental mental diagnoses, child health, scope and severity of child dysfunction, socioeconomic disadvantage, parent and family functioning, risk, and barriers that emerged during treatment. The complexity scale was correlated with retention in the intervention programme and measures of sleep outcome including the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire and the Sleep Problem Severity Score. The results indicated that, for families who completed the intervention programme, complexity in and of itself did not predict sleep-related outcomes. Complexity did however predict retention in the programme. Results are discussed in the light of best practice for assessment in FBA, the need for intervention to specifically target parental behaviours and support for families embarking on such an intervention


今回は得るものがたくさんありました!

そしてそれらはクライエント様やこれからのサービス提供に関して
大きな影響を与えるであろうと思われるものばかりです。

今回学習したことを臨床に役立てていきます!


次回第11回国際大会
ダブリン(アイルランド)で2021年9月に開催されます!

| 学会 | 19:03 | comments(-) | trackbacks(-) | TOP↑

≫ EDIT

10th ABAI International Conference@Stockholm (DAY1)

第10回国際行動分析学会国際大会が
スウェーデンのストックホルムで
9/29-30の2日間開催され
初日の今日は以下のプログラムを聴講しました。

Evaluating the Outcomes of Low-Intensity Behavior Interventions

Chair: Paula Pompa-Craven (Easterseals Southern California)
Abstract:
Early intensive behavioral interventions are considered the intervention of choice for treating individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. However, in many instances constraints prevent individuals from receiving intensive behavioral treatments and low-intensity interventions are provided instead. In this symposium, the authors will present outcome of low-intensity behavioral interventions across different sites using a variety of assessment tools, including the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP), the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), IQ scores, and other related measures. The reliability of the VB-MAPP is discussed and it is evaluated as an outcome measure.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): autism, clinical outcomes, low-intensity, vb-mapp
Target Audience:
Practitioners and policy-makers who provide ABA interventions or prescribe interventions for autism.
Learning Objectives: 1) Describe outcomes of low-intensity ABA interventions 2) Describe the outcomes of community-based low-intensity ABA interventions 3) Describe the reliability of the VB-MAPP assessment

Moderate Effects of Low-Intensity Behavioral Interventions
(Service Delivery)
AMIN DUFF LOTFIZADEH (Easterseals Southern California), Ellie Kazemi (California State University, Northridge), Paula Pompa-Craven (Easterseals Southern California), Sigmund Eldevik (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences)
Abstract: We compared two-year clinical outcomes across two group of individuals who received ABA interventions for an average of 10.6 (n=98) and 5.7 weekly hours (n=73). The more intensive group made greater gains on language skills, social skills, and other areas assessed by the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). We also evaluated gains for a smaller sample of the participants (n=28) using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) but the groups did not differ on this measure after two years. The gains in this study were moderate and provide further support for a dose-response relationship between intervention hours and outcomes.

Evaluating the Inter-Rater Reliability of the VB-MAPP
(Applied Research)
KHRYSTLE LAUREN MONTALLANA (Easterseals Southern California), Brendan Michael Gard (Easterseals Southern California ), Amin Duff Lotfizadeh (Easterseals Southern California), Alan D. Poling (Western Michigan University)
Abstract: The Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP) is a comprehensive assessment tool that takes a functional and topographical approach to assessing language and other skills (e.g., social skills, play skills, math skills). The VB-MAPP has received considerable attention and promise as a clinical assessment tool and was recently used as an outcome measure in a longitudinal study. This study evaluates the inter-rater reliability of the VB-MAPP when administered by trained clinicians who regularly conducted the VB-MAPP as part of their clinical duties. The Milestones assessment had moderate to good reliability, but individual domains within it were less reliable. Caution must be taken when analyzing individual domain scores.

Effects of Moderately Intensive Behavioral Intervention Provided Through a Community-Based Service Model
(Service Delivery)
SIGMUND ELDEVIK (Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Kristine Berg Titlestad (Oslo Metropolitan University), Hege Aarlie (Norway ABA), Roy Tonnesen (Pedagogisk Psykologisk Tjeneste), Silje Nikolaisen (Norwegian ABA), Astri Valmo (Centre for Early Intervention (STI))
Abstract:
We evaluated outcome of early behavioral intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as it was provided through public service providers in Norway. One group of children received low intensity intervention (11.1 weekly hours), a second group higher intensity intervention (18.1 weekly hours), and a third group received eclectic special education. We compared outcomes on adaptive behavior, ASD severity and intellectual functioning across the groups after one year. Although, both the lower and higher intensity behavioral intervention groups received less hours than what is recommended in the literature, both groups did significantly better than the eclectic comparison group. Furthermore, the higher intensity behavioral group did better than the lower intensity behavioral group. Confirming a dose-response relationship between intensity and gains made. Nevertheless, gains in both behavioral groups were more modest than what is reported for intervention that is more intensive. We discuss the pros and cons of the publicly funded behavioral intervention model.

Behavior Analysis Practice and the Down Syndrome Behavioral Phenotype
BLAKE HANSEN (Brigham Young University), Kaylee Christensen (Brigham Young University)

Abstract: Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal condition associated with intellectual disability. Although descriptive studies have shown that individuals with Down syndrome engage in fewer challenging behaviors than their peers with other intellectual and/or developmental disorders, there is still substantial need for behavior analytic service delivery in this population. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype and show three studies conducted within this population that address some of the challenges associated with Down syndrome. The first study was on skill acquisition for reading skills. Parents of 17 children with Down syndrome provided instruction on phonological awareness skills (e.g., blending and segmenting words, rhyming), letter-sound correspondences, and word reading. Parents were also trained on strategies for building compliance. The study indicated that children with Down syndrome can benefit from literacy instruction using direct instruction and natural environment procedures for building reading skills and compliance. The second study was a single case example of antecedent controls for increasing compliance (high probability requests, therapist, and contextual modifications) with physical activity in a child with Down syndrome. This study demonstrated that physical activity can increase given appropriate antecedent interventions. The final study is an updated meta-analysis of functional assessment and function-based treatments for individuals with Down syndrome. Applying standards for evidence-based practice, the meta analysis indicated that functional assessment-based treatments are effective for this population. Implications for service delivery in this population will be discussed.

Social Skills and Peer Intervention

Chair: Mark Willer (George Mason University)

A Literature Review of Peer and Adult-Mediated Intervention Using Pivotal Response Training on Social Initiations
Domain: Applied Research
MARK WILLER (George Mason University), Theodore A. Hoch (George Mason University)
Abstract: This review looks at Pivotal Response Training (PRT) interventions targeting social initiations and providing instruction of that skill by a trained intervention agent in the natural environment. The data is coded and displayed into adult- and peer-mediated interventions (AMI and PMI). The results of effect size may have future implications on service delivery for learners with autism. The current review suggests AMIs and PMIs targeting social initiations for learners with ASD have the potential to build an important bridge between research and practice. Often social skills are taught by professionals who require extensive or accredited training (e.g., school psychologists, researchers, or Board Certified Behavior Analysts). The review suggests that trained paraprofessionals, parents, and peers produce similar outcomes without hiring additional personnel. Both AMIs and PMIs have been successfully integrated into the school day, social groups, and community environments of the learner with ASD.

Effect of Peer-Delivered Social Stories on the Safety Skills of Primary School Students With Developmental Disabilities
Domain: Applied Research
MEHMET BIÇAKCI (Hacettepe University), Seray Gul (Hacettepe University)
Abstract:
In this study, it was aimed to examine the effect of a peer education program developed on the acquisitions of knowledge and skill of writing and implementing social stories by students attending primary school, and the effect of social stories delivered by peers who have completed the program on the acquisition of crossing skills by students with developmental disabilities, maintenance of this skill two weeks after the end of the implementation, and generalization with a different street. In the study, social validity data were collected from peer tutees and peer tutors using a subjective evaluation approach. The study was carried out with a total of six participants consisting of three students aged between 7 and 9 years who attend a primary school in Turkey/Bingöl province, two of whom are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and one of whom is diagnosed with a mild intellectual disability, and these students' peers with normal development. Peer tutees were taught how to write and deliver social stories with one-on-one instruction by following the steps of Powerpoint presentation, modeling, experimenting, and providing feedback. In the study, a multiple probe design with probe conditions across dyads (peer tutor - peer tutees), one of the single subject research models, was used to evaluate the effect of social stories written and delivered by peer tutors on peer tutees' learning crossing skills. Research results showed that peer tutors acquired the social story writing and implementation skill accurately by 100%. After the instruction delivered by the peers who acquired the social story writing and implementation skill, it was observed that peer tutees acquired the crossing skill and could generalize it to a different street, and that two peer tutees with the autism spectrum disorder continued to exhibit this skill they acquired accurately by 100% two weeks after the end of the study. Social validity data collected from peer tutees and peer tutors using a subjective evaluation approach showed that both peer tutees and peer tutors had positive opinions on the target skill, social stories, and research results. These results were discussed within the context of the literature, and suggestions were made to include peer-mediated implementations in teaching different skills with different methods and to make the use of social stories in teaching safety skills by parents, siblings, specialists working in the field and teachers widespread.

Playing and Pretending: A Behavioral Approach to Teaching Pretend Play

Chair: Nancy J. Champlin (ACI Learning Centers)
Discussant: Suzanne N. Ward Taylor(adaptABILITY, LLC)
Abstract:
Play is an integral part of a child’s typical development and should be an emphasis in early intervention for children diagnosed with autism (Lifter & Bloom, 1989). The use of behavioral interventions can lead to significant increases in play skills (Stahmer, 1995) while simultaneously decreasing inappropriate behaviors including self-stimulatory behaviors (Sani-Bozkurt & Ozen, 2015). The Pretend Play and Language Assessment and Curriculum (PPLAC) is a developmentally-sequenced, behaviorally- based tool designed to establish and expand pretend play in children, ages 2-7. The 5 elements of pretend play (category, agent, object, advanced, and the essential skills to sociodramatic play) are systematically targeted to teach independent and sociodramatic pretend play to children with autism. The studies in this symposium evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing the PPLAC to teach pretend play. The first study analyzes Stage 1: Single Agent to teach children with autism single play actions and vocalizations across 19 different targets. The second study examines Stage 2: Chaining Play to teach a sequence of play actions and corresponding vocalizations to children with autism across 24 different targets. The targets in Stage 1 and Stage 2 are designed to move a child through the progression of play by introducing and expanding on the 5 elements of pretend play.
Instruction Level: Intermediate
Keyword(s): Pretend Play, Social Skills

Learning Objectives: 1) Participants will identify five elements of pretend play including category, agent, object, advanced play, and the essential skills to sociodramatic play 2) Participants will identify the systematic approach to introducing and chaining targets in Stage 1 3) Participants will label the social expectations for targets in Stage 1: Single Agent from the Pretend Play and Language Assessment and Curriculum 4) Participants will identify effective interventions to chain three pretend play actions and corresponding vocalizations for targets in Stage 2: Chaining Play

Teaching the Foundational Components of Pretend Play
MELISSA SCHISSLER (ACI Learning Centers)
Abstract: Pretend play provides critical learning opportunities in the everyday lives of all children (Ozen, Batu, & Birkan, 2012) that serves as the primary context to establish and expand social communicative skills (Mathieson & Banerjee, 2010). Sigman and Ruskin (1999) identified a correlation between play and language development. Deficits in functional speech lead to barriers in participation and inclusion during play opportunities (Boesch, Wendt, Subramanian, & Hsu, 2013). Teaching children diagnosed with autism appropriate play skills requires isolating the individual components of play to acquire, maintain, and generalize the target skill. The purpose of this study was to teach children diagnosed with autism, ages 2-5, play actions and vocalizations across 19 targets in Stage 1: Single Agent from the Pretend Play and Language Assessment and Curriculum. Actions and vocalizations from the familiar category of play were taught across three additional elements of pretend play: agent, object, and essential skills to sociodramatic play. A concurrent multiple baseline across participants was conducted across three to four actions and vocalizations. The outcome of the study demonstrated the efficacy of the steps identified in Stage 1: Single Agent, to teach single play actions with corresponding vocalizations incorporating four of the five elements of pretend play.

Teaching a Chain of Play Actions and Corresponding to Children Diagnosed With Autism
NANCY J. CHAMPLIN (ACI Learning Centers)
Abstract:
Play in children with autism is often referred to as stereotypical and lacking in symbolic qualities and flexibility (Lifter, Sulzer-Azaroff, Anderson, & Cowdery, 1993). When utilizing behavioral interventions children with autism are capable of the same level of symbolic play as typically developing children (Charman & Baron-Cohen, 1997). Lifter (2011) emphasized the importance of a developmental sequence of play paired with behavioral interventions. The purpose of this study was to utilize the developmental sequence of play to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching a series of 8 components encompassing the second developmental stage of play, chaining play. Least-to-most prompting was used to teach a chain of 3 play actions and vocalizations to 3 children diagnosed with autism, ages 3-5. All 3 children were taught each chain of play actions across agent of play: self as agent, passive figure, and active figure. Advanced play was targeted in the form of rotating and combining play schemes both independently and with peers. Lastly, the essential skills to sociodramatic play, initiating, responding, and expanding were targeted through the sequence. A multiple baseline across participants was conducted. The outcome of this study demonstrated the efficacy of the 8 teaching components as steps to teach all 4 children a chain of play actions with corresponding vocalizations across all 5 elements of pretend play.

How Children Develop Naming and How This Development Sets Life’s Prognosis

Chair: Peter R. Killeen (Arizona State University)
R. GREER (Columbia University Teachers College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences)

Abstract:
Bidirectional naming (BiN) developmental research has advanced our understanding about how children come to learn the names of things incidentally from experiences and how this leads to continuous expansion of new controlling stimuli. Interventions are available that allow the instantiation of BiN when children are missing the relevant stimulus control (i.e., children with autism, those raised in dis-enfranchised environments, and second language learners). Several types have been identified including the simultaneous acquisition of: actions, additional sounds, learning under exclusion conditions, and different effects of familiar and nonfamiliar novel visual stimuli. We are leaning how BiN in one language affects: bilingual children’s responses in each language, monolingual children and adult response to tests of BiN in an unfamiliar language, and the role of echoic precision in derived naming in an unfamiliar language. Moreover, the types of BiN that are part of children’s verbal developmental repertoire, at any given point in stimulus control development, determine what can be taught/not taught, what can be learned/not learned from observation, the types of learn unit presentations that are most effective, and the relations between BiN and other relational responding.

Increasing Functional Life Skills and Health-Related Behaviors in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Chair: Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University)
Abstract:
Children with autism spectrum disorders may exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior such as functional living skills and health-related behaviors. A strong repertoire of adaptive behaviors may be closely linked to positive long-term outcomes (Carothers & Taylor, 2004) and quality of life (Kuhlthau et al., 2010) for children with autism spectrum disorders. Despite the success that behavior analysts have had teaching adaptive skills to this population, there are still many areas in which evidence-based teaching strategies are lacking. This symposium will focus on strategies aimed at increasing adaptive behaviors in children with autism. The first presenter used a progressive treatment model to teach children with autism to tolerate having their fingernails cut. The second presenter used activity schedules to promote sustained engagement in physical activity with three children with autism. The third presenter used video modeling and multiple exemplars to teach teenagers with autism to use a debit card in the natural environment. Taken together, these studies add to the growing pool of evidence-based strategies available to practitioners working with children with autism spectrum disorders on health behaviors and functional living skills.
Instruction Level: Basic
Keyword(s): Adaptive behavior, Health behavior, Life skills

Teaching Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders to Tolerate Fingernail Cutting: A Progressive Treatment Model
MEGHAN DESHAIS (Caldwell University), Lisa Guerrero (Munroe-Meyer Institute), Brandon C. Perez (University of Florida), Timothy R. Vollmer (University of Florida)
Abstract:
Many individuals with developmental disabilities exhibit uncooperative behavior during hygiene routines with caregivers (e.g., Schumacher & Rapp, 2011). Uncooperative behavior may hinder or prevent caregivers from completing these routines and may put these individuals at risk for poor health outcomes. Although a limited number of studies have assessed the function of uncooperative behavior during hygiene routines, it is assumed that these behaviors are maintained by escape from and avoidance of these routines. Despite the well-documented effectiveness of escape extinction as a treatment for escape maintained problem behavior, the nature of many hygiene routines could render escape extinction a dangerous and risky treatment option. A number of treatment studies have successfully treated uncooperative behavior during hygiene routines without escape extinction. We sought to extend this line of research by addressing a number of the limitations of previous studies. More specifically, the purpose of the current study was to: (1) replicate and extend the procedures described by Shabani and Fisher (2006) to routine nail cutting, (2) present a progressive treatment model, (3) provide a comprehensive account of caregiver training, and (4) measure and report behavioral indicators of participant distress.

Using Pictorial Activity Schedules to Increase Physical Activity in Children With Autism
M. ALICE SHILLINGSBURG (May Institute), Brittany Lee Bartlett (Marcus Autism Center), Taylor Thompson (Marcus Autism Center), Kristen K Criado (Marcus Autism Center & Emory University)
Abstract: Children with autism are 40% more likely to be overweight and obese compared to their typically developed peers. Although evidenced-based interventions for weight management exist for other pediatric populations, these approaches may require adaptation for children with ASD. A key component of existing interventions is to increase time in physical activity. Individuals with developmental disabilities often require specific interventions to remain on task or complete activities with extended durations. Activity Schedules have been shown to be effective with this population in increasing time on task. The current study extended the use of Activity Schedules to promote sustained engagement in physical activities with 3 children diagnosed with autism using a multiple baseline across participants design. All three participants showed increases in total time spent engaged in physical activities following intervention; however, engagement reduced to baseline levels when the Activity Schedule was removed. Thus, Activity Schedules appear to be an appropriate method of increasing physical activity in children with autism but more research on fading out the schedules is needed.

Teaching Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorder a Generalized Repertoire of Using a Debit Card
EILEEN MARY MILATA (Caldwell University), Sharon A. Reeve (Caldwell University), Kenneth F. Reeve (Caldwell University), Chata A. Dickson (New England Center for Children)
Abstract:
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate deficits in performing generalized responses that occur in natural environments and vary in stimulus conditions. Previous research has discussed the importance of teaching adaptive skills to adolescents with ASD that generalize to the natural environment to increase independence throughout adulthood. To address such deficits, Horner and colleagues (1982) recommended using general-case analysis strategies to identify the full range of stimulus variations and required responses; then creating multiple teaching exemplars that facilitate for generalization of the target skill. To date, general-case analysis and multiple exemplar training have not been used to teach individuals with ASD to use a chip debit card. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to contribute to the general-case analysis literature while addressing limitations of previous studies that did not implement generalization strategies to teach adolescents with ASD adaptive skills. A multiple-probe design was used to demonstrate skill acquisition across teaching and generalization probe exemplars for three adolescents with ASD. Pre- and posttest probes were conducted at stores in the natural environment to assess generalized responding. Results suggest that all participants acquired the target skill following video modeling and multiple exemplar training, and demonstrated maintenance during a four-week posttest probe.

Welcome Reception

The City of Stockholm invites attendees to a culturally influenced opening reception at City Hall. A short walk from the headquarters hotel, City Hall--most famous for the annual Nobel Banquet--is a Gilt mosaic architectural jewel with a tower that offers Stockholm's best views. Attendees have the opportunity to attend this Nobel-level reception in a building generally open to the public only through guided tours. Plentiful hors d'oeuvres, local wine, and entertainment will be featured. Doors will open at 7 pm with folk music played by Dag Strömberg on a traditional Swedish flute. Cocktail attire is requested.


今回は例年よりも日本人発表が多かったように感じました!

明日は8:00ー18:20までフルで参加します!!

| 学会 | 23:05 | comments(-) | trackbacks(-) | TOP↑

≫ EDIT

第57回日本特殊教育学会年次大会

第57回日本特殊教育学会年次大会が
広島大学東広島キャンパスで
9/21-23の3日間開催されています。

今年は2日目の今日1日のみの参加となりました。

4つのシンポジウムを聴講しました。

☆知的障害・発達障害児へのセルフ・マネジメントによる支援4
-実践例に基づく適用の有効性と課題の検討 -

☆重い障害のある子どもの家族QOLを支援するには

☆現場で求められる障害児支援の実践力

☆応用行動分析学による就学移行支援の展開
ICT活用・オンライン支援


また色々なところで共有していきます!

来年第58回は9/19-21福岡国際会議場で開催されます。

| 学会 | 19:55 | comments(-) | trackbacks(-) | TOP↑

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